Goa, state in western India, formerly part of Portuguese India, bordered on the north by Mahārāshtra state, on the west by the Arabian Sea, and on the south and east by Karnātaka state. Goa is India's smallest state, covering an area of 3,702 sq km (1,429 sq mi).As per the Hindu mythology, Goa and the Konkan coastline were created by the god Parasurama (Lord Vishnu, the Protector, in the sixth of his ten incarnations), and soon became a retreat for the Gods in times of stress. Shiva visited Goa to bless seven great sages who had performed penance for seven million years.In the Puranas and certain inscriptions, Goa was called by different names like Gove, Govapuri, and Gomant. It has also been known as Aprant.
The medieval Arabian geographers knew it as Sindabur, or Sandabur, and the Portuguese as Goa. When the capital was transferred to "Nova Goa" or New Goa (today's Panaji), the old capital came to be known as "Velha Goa" or Old Goa.
Contact with the Muslim world
Goa was known as Sindabur by Arab geographers. Goa was also ruled by the Shilharas and Kadambas. In 1312 Goa for the first time fell into the hands of the Muslim rulers when Harihara of the Vijayanagar Empire evacuated the coastal area. Later Goa was dominated by the Bahmani Dynasty. Bahmanis were in constant conflict with the Vijayanagar empire even after detained Goa for a quarter of century. But Vijaynagar army finally succeeded in taking Goa from the Bahmanis.
In 1469, however, Goa was reconquered by the Bahmani of Gulbarga. When this empire broke up, the area was given to Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who made Goa Velha their second capital. The present Secretariat building in Panaji is a former Adil Shahi palace, later taken over by the Portuguese Viceroys as their official residence.
The Portuguese Vasco da Gama was the First European to reach India through sea root in 1948 at Malabar coast. He came to India searching Christians and spices and found plenty of spices in India. The Portuguese were known as a seafaring nation an expedition enabled them to establish a small fortress in Kochi. Afonso de Albuquerque came to India to re-establish this base and provide confidence and ample opportunities. Albuquerque, in 1506 was ordered to take over two fortress one at Kochi and other at Cannanore. He arrived in India in 1508. Rumours were spread that Urab rulers of coastal states were planning to attack the Portuguese sea power. Albuquerque attacked and occupied the main Island in March 1510. But the Arab ruler Yussuf Adil Shah counter attacked Albuquerque and drove him out. Albuquerque attacked again and retook his position. His greatest achievement was the skillful, political, balancing act he performed. Vijaynagar and Bijapuris were the most dangerous threats for him. Finally he died on 15th December 1515 and said good buy to Goa and to the world.